European Communist Initiative: Anti-NATO intervention in Warsaw!

  • 7/11/16 12:26 PM

The event of the European Communist Initiative was taken held in Warsaw on the occasion of the NATO summit on Friday July 8th. The slogan of the meeting was "NATO and the EU are a permanent threat for the peoples. The way out is to be found in the struggle for peace, social rights, socialism".

11 parties participated in this event: Workers Party of Ireland, CP Italy,Hungarian Workers Party, Movement of "People’s Resistance Moldova", CP of Norway, CP of Poland, CP of Slovakia, CP of People's of Spain,CP of Sweden, CP Turkey.

The President of CP of Poland cde Krjstof Swej welcome the representatives of the CPs in Warsaw and the introduction speech was made by the Vice President of CP of Poland cde Beata Karon.

The presence of the "EUROPEAN COMMUNIST INITIATIVE" in Warsaw is a significant internationalist step that was in harmony with the will of the peoples who have condemned NATO in their consciousness.This presence is an important and decisive step in the activity of the INITIATIVE showing the readiness, vigilance and militant action of the communist parties in Europe.It was a direct and immediate response against the dangerous imperialist plannings of NATO worldwide and its upgrade cooparation with EU against the peoples bringing new bloodbaths, dismantling of countries, changing of borders and new streams of refugees.
The event was also an expression of clear condemnation of the anticommunist prosecutions against the CP Poland, rejecting and denounciing the ban of communist activity that are been promoted by the polish government and EU.
The delegates of the "EUROPEAN COMMUNIST INITIATIVE" took part in the Anti NATO rally on Saturday July 9th in the centre of Warsaw together with the World Peace Council.
Τhe next days the speeches of the participant Communist Parties in the event of Friday July 8th will be uploaded in our website.


Contribution of CP of Poland

NATO and rise of militarisation of Poland
Counter revolution in Central and Eastern Europe has started a new era of imperialism. Despite announcements about the end of the arms race and threat to global peace, world did not become safer. On the contrary – situation in Central and Eastern Europe proves that NATO is an aggressive alliance and a threat to freedom of the people.
At the beginning of the 90's Polish politicians started to announce that their aim is to form a military alliance with the United States and enter NATO. First talks were conducted in 1993 without informing the society. At the same time the social democratic party, which has won the elections, so-called Alliance of Democratic Left, was officially very sceptical towards NATO. Among its electoral slogans was partnership with the East and West altogether with the idea of neutrality.
In October 1993 the Partnership for Peace was formed. It was a hidden project to enlarge NATO and involve Central and Eastern European countries in Western military policy. In January 1994 the US president Bill Clinton has said that it is not a question whether NATO will be enlarged but when it will happen. In February 1994 Poland was a first country to sign Partnership for Peace agreement with NATO. It was signed by the coalition government led by the social democrats, so we know that from the beginning they were cheating the society about neutrality of Poland. Partnership for Peace was presented as a way of protecting peace and creating general defence system in Europe. Partnership was clearly a way to gain new markets for the Western military companies and start integrating Central and Eastern European armies into NATO through international military exercises, conferences and trainings.
In 1995 Polish social democratic prime minister Józef Oleksy visited NATO headquarters and was acknowledged with “Study on enlargement of NATO”, document on Alliance’s expansion in Europe. This study was a part of a package. It was not only on military matters but also intervened in Polish internal politics. It demanded for example developing “free market economy” and introducing programmes prepared by the international financial institutions such as the World Bank and the IMF. In July 1997 Poland, together with Czech Republic and Hungary, was invited to participate in talks on enlargement of the Alliance. During the electoral campaign of 1997 entering NATO was already presented as one of the main goals of the international policy and accepted by all the main political parties. On 17th of February 1999 Washington Treaty was ratified by the Polish parliament. Poland had already new right wing government but among main promoters of the agreement was contemporary social democratic president Aleksander Kwaśniewski.
Poland has entered NATO in March 1999, just two weeks before its attack on Yugoslavia. Poland did not participate militarily in the attack, due to lack of resources, but supported it politically. Opposition to this war was very small despite the popular discontent of the society. No major political power dared to oppose.
The next stage of militarization and subordination to NATO’s goals was participation in the so-called “war on terror”. After the aggression on Afghanistan Poland was one of the first countries to join the US led coalition. Despite social discontent president Kwaśniewski in 2002 had sent troops to Afghanistan. Poland was among the main ISAF forces. In the peak of this activity about 2200 Polish soldiers were participating in the occupation of Afghanistan. Over 43 soldiers were killed and over 380 wounded during the course of the war. Estimated cost of vast expenditures on Polish military contingent in Afghanistan is about 6 bln zloty – 1,35 bln euro.
Since 2003 Poland has supported the US war on Iraq. Polish special forces participated in the attack and more troops were sent to occupy the country. Radosław Sikorski, contemporary minister of defence, member of neo-conservative think tanks, even had an idea to replace the US troops with Central European as cheaper and more expendable. Cost of participation in the occupation of Iraq has reached over 1 bln zloty – 225 mln euro. Most of it was covered by the state budget.
At the same time when Poland was participating in NATO's and the US aggressions, military expenditures were rising. New equipment was bought from the US for troops in Iraq and Afghanistan. It was an equipment mostly useless in defensive operations but adequate for foreign adventures. Large military companies gained contracts to supply new armoured cars, planes and electronic systems. Poland has also bought big number of the F-16 fighter jets. It was happening consecutively with austerity measures.
Another stage of militarisation started with G.W. Bush's plans to establish an anti-missile shield. Polish authorities announced that they would like to invite NATO troops and have foreign military bases in the country. This move was being justified by the so called “threat from the East”. In recent years this type of propaganda was being spread by nearly all political forces. It was a way to gain social consent for rising militarisation of the country. Military expenditures are the only guaranteed by the state budget and reach 2% of the GDP. Poland is currently among the leading EU countries concerning military budget. Minister of Defence recently mentioned even that defence expenditures should reach 3% of the GDP. New programs of modernisation of the army are being launched and they are not connected with defensive tasks. Polish strategy starts to be more and more aggressive. It gives clear permission to intervene in the internal politics of other countries.
We are also facing rising militarisation of the society. Right wing, nationalist government is trying to impose its concept of the territorial defence that is going to be composed of paramilitary forces. It is tool of government's propaganda and a way to push limits of aggressive policy further. Even considered arming the extreme right wing nationalists and including it into territorial defence. This militarisation is also a threat to civil rights. New “anti-terrorist law” that makes wire-taping and using secret services in political cases easier, was passed before the NATO summit. It is justified, as always, as a way to make Poland safer, but in fact gives government more power to attack peoples movements.
When we are mentioning militarisation we must also concern resistance to it. It was stronger during the initial stage of the war against Iraq. Vast majority of the society opposed military aggressions. However this resistance was never transformed into the mass protests and anti-war actions. In Poland they were very limited in size. All main political parties varied only in details concerning military policy. Participation in NATO and its wars was never part of the public debate. Nowadays, when the costs and outcome of conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan are known, some concerns are being posed, but they are not being given much attention. The lesson of Iraq and Afghanistan was not learned, because now Poland is sending troops to participate in war against Daesh in Iraq.
We are facing rising propaganda campaign. Most media coverage of the events such as military exercises or present NATO summit is very enthusiastic. Also the rhetoric of main politicians is more and more aggressive and this tendency is praised by the media. NATO summit is accompanied by the local shows that aim to convince society about the need of militarisation. These events are being sponsored by the state budget and state owned companies. This trend is to intensify because opinion polls suggest that large part of the society still oppose foreign military bases in Poland. In places where military sites are to be situated there were already several protests. The aim of the propaganda is to isolate those who protest. We are in a very difficult and dangerous situation. NATO imperialism needs further provocations and atmosphere of fear to justify its existence. Global military companies are profiting from politics of countries such as Poland. They also aim to scare entire societies into obedience.
NATO is leading us towards new arms race and more military expenditures, which we should oppose. We reject NATO's military bases and anti-missile shield advance East and project of inviting new members into it. Our aim as communists is to oppose imperialism, militarism and propaganda in favour of war. Our internationalism has to be strong, we have a lot in common with people of the working class from countries that are currently being presented as enemies. Our enemies are capitalists and war mongers, not workers from Russia, Ukraine, Belarus and other countries. We do not need NATO, we need overthrow of the capitalism.

Contribution of CP of Greece

Dear comrades,


We would like to thank the CP of Poland for supporting today's event of the "EUROPEAN COMMUNIST INITIATIVE" in Warsaw in order to denounce the criminal imperialist NATO organization and the SUMMIT which it is holding in order to decide on very dangerous new measures against the peoples that will bring a generalized imperialist war closer.


The WARSAW PACT was signed here, in Poland's capital, on the 14th of June 1955 (it was founded in May of the same year), the political-military alliance of socialist countries which constituted a strong pro-peace force against the imperialist aggressiveness and made an important contribution at the side of the peoples, refuting the slanderers and rewriters of history.


We denounce the anticommunism and persecutions carried out by the Polish government against the CP of Poland and our comrades, who are trying in very difficult conditions to defend the working class, the cause of socialism and the historical truth.


We thank all the Communist and Workers' Parties that participate in today's event and we want to note that the presence of the "EUROPEAN COMMUNIST INITIATIVE" in Warsaw is a significant internationalist step that is in harmony with the will of the peoples who have condemned NATO in their consciousness.


Dear comrades,


We are obliged to inform the youth, to inform the workers that NATO is the political-military apparatus that was formed by US and European imperialism in 1949 in order to threaten and undermine the Soviet Union, which had made the decisive contribution to the victory against Nazism and emerged from World War II with great prestige, successfully continuing socialist construction in a new environment in Europe, where a significant number of states were waging the struggle for workers' power to pave the way for socialist construction.


NATO for decades relying on the military machine of the USA and European capitalist states, many of which were members of the EEC, operated as a counterrevolutionary force, a gendarme of capitalism against the workers'-people's struggle, a vehicle for imperialist wars, interventions and coups in many regions of the world.


It adapted to the new conditions after the overthrow of socialism and the counterrevolutions. The strategic line that it follows seeks to clear the path for US and European monopolies, by intervening decisively in the inter-imperialist competition with Russia and China, with new capitalist alliances such as BRICS, over the control of markets and natural resources.


Year in year out, studying and utilizing the experience from the imperialist interventions and wars, NATO refines and improves its strategy and tactics, forms modern military structures, modernizes its conventional nuclear weapons systems and arsenal.


In recent years, NATO has fulfilled its own murderous role in the imperialist wars in Yugoslavia, Afghanistan, Iraq, Syria and Libya. Its member states intervene in Africa and other regions. It expands its military bases into the Balkans, Central and Eastern Europe, establishes new command centres, creates dangerous infrastructure in Europe, including infrastructure related to the storage of nuclear weapons.


A characteristic feature of the practice followed by NATO to justify its murderous activity is the creation of pretexts in order to manipulate popular forces and prepare the terrain for interventions and imperialist wars.


The pretexts are not limited to just the elaboration and presentation of false information about confronting, for example, chemical and biological weapons, terrorism etc., but extend to the use of provocations and even criminal organizations like the "Taliban" and the "Islamic State", which are the creation of the USA and its allies.


These organizations are becoming autonomous or continue to have channels of communication with the US and NATO mechanisms and are used once again as pretexts for new interventions in the framework of a continuously more dangerous anti-people vicious circle.


A basic feature of NATO's activity is its expansion all over the globe. With accession of Montenegro as its 29th member, NATO has a stronger foothold in the Balkans and in general attempts to spread its tentacles everywhere.

It establishes various allied formations, such as the falsely titled "Partnership for Peace" or "Neighbourhood Policy" with countries from the Mediterranean, Middle East, North Africa and Persian Gulf, and forms special relations with countries like Ukraine, Georgia, Sweden and Finland.

It has signed agreements with Japan, South Korea, Australia, New Zealand, Latin American states etc. A characteristic feature of recent years is the US pivot to Asia-Pacific and the deployment there of significant military forces, in the framework of its competition with China.


NATO's experience from the interventions and many (previous) years of occupation chiefly in Afghanistan and Iraq was codified in the strategic doctrine decided upon at the Lisbon Summit in 2010.On this basis, the strategy for the formation of Flexible Rapid Reaction Forces was reinforced, the foundations were laid for the creation of a Missile Shield, under the pretext of confronting Iran's nuclear programme.


This course continued at the Summit in Wales, 2014, directing the NATO predatory alliance towards Eastern and Central Europe, the Baltic states, while maintaining its "interest" in the Middle East and North Africa.

Today, the Summit in Warsaw is elaborating, amongst other things, the experience of recent years in the light of the imperialist wars in Syria, Libya and the conflict in Ukraine, with the basic feature being the sharpening of the contradictions and antagonisms with Russia.

On this basis, the Summit will plan the activities of NATO for the next period and reinforce those plans that already underway, by taking the following additional measures:

Concentration and transfer of battle-ready military forces to countries that border Russia, completion of installation and operation of the so-called "Missile Shield" with bases in Romania and Poland, naval support and more general infrastructure connected to the use of nuclear weapons in a destructive confrontation.

Creating and strengthening a permanent NATO presence in the Black Sea, the Aegean and Mediterranean, for the latter two using the pretext of controlling the refugee flows that are caused and reinforced by the imperialist wars and their painful consequences at the expense of the peoples.

In practice, NATO's presence in these regions is connected to the continuation of military operations in Syria, the preparation of a new intervention in Libya and the step by step monitoring of Russian military moves and political aims.

Another basic issue for the Warsaw Summit will be the strengthening of NATO's military cooperation with the EU in order to serve their common, despite the contradictions that manifest themselves, aims to promote the interests of US and European monopolies.

NATO's cooperation with political-military apparatus of FRONTEX is already being promoted as an achievement. This apparatus is being used by the EU in the Aegean to control the borders and is in the process of being replaced by the stronger apparatus of the "European Border and Coast Guard", with the potential to intervene in the internal affairs and activity of the member-states and even counter to their governments' decisions.

The imperialist interventions via FRONTEX and the "European Border and Coast Guard" are promoted for other regions as examples of NATO-EU cooperation, while NATO forces in the Mediterranean and Libya also cooperate with the EU's military mission, called SOPHIA, and are preparing a new intervention in Libya, under the pretext of confronting the jihadists and supporting the Libyan government.

22 of the 29 NATO member-states are members of the EU. The NATO apparatus remains the basic military pillar of support for the Euro-Atlantic operations, but at the same time the EU also follows its own autonomous course and is forming its own military apparatus.

This course will possibly depend on the developments in Britain and its relationship with the EU, as 50% of the EU's military spending comes from the British budget.

In any case, Britain plays and will continue to play an important role in the NATO predatory alliance after the referendum result (BREXIT), for as long as capitalist ownership of the means of production and bourgeois power remain in place, state and governmental policy will work against the interests of the British and other peoples.

The developments are very dangerous, the inter-imperialist contradictions and antagonisms constitute the basis for wars and substantiate our concern regarding the danger of a generalized military conflict.

Our party denounces the political line of the bourgeois parties and governments, of ND , PASOK and SYRIZA, which entangles our country in the inter-imperialist antagonisms and assimilates it even more deeply into the imperialist predatory alliances of NATO and the EU.

We note that the self-styled left government of SYRIZA, which deliberately fostered false expectations amongst our people, is following the classical path of a social-democratic party, a manager of capitalism, that represents and advances the interests of big capital and from this standpoint seeks the "geostrategic enhancement «of the country.

At a time when our people are suffering due to poverty, the SYRIZA-ANEL government continues the tradition of the ND and PASOK governments and spends more than 4 billion Euros a year -2.38% of the GDP- for the needs of NATO, occupying the second position behind the USA in terms of percentage of the GDP spent. The total amount spent by Greek governments in the period 2009-2016 (the period of the capitalist crisis) is calculated at being 38.8 billion Euros and this is a major scandal.

The SYRIZA-ANEL government makes the Suda base in Crete, other bases and Euro-Atlantic command centres available for the success of NATO, US and EU operations.

The KKE fights on a daily basis against NATO and the EU, against imperialist wars and interventions, demands that there should be no Greek involvement in these plans, for the return home of military forces that are abroad on imperialist missions.

The struggle as a whole will become more effective to the extent, through the leading contribution of the communists all over the world, the labour and people's movement will be strengthened and acquire an antimonopoly-anticapitalist orientation and will aim to eradicate the root causes that give rise to wars, poverty, unemployment and refugees.


The developments require the strengthening of the struggle of the working class, the leading class in society, in coordination and alliance with the oppressed popular strata to overthrow capitalist barbarity, to conquer workers' power for the construction of socialism, the disengagement from NATO and the EU and the creation of a higher form of international relations that will be based on mutual benefit and the people's interests.


The "EUROPEAN COMMUNIST INITIATIVE" from the very first day of its foundation has formed a front against NATO and the EU and plans new interventions in the next period, which will particularly focus on the removal of Euro-Atlantic bases from each country.

Contribution of People’s Resistance Moldova

Я хотел бы поблагодарить наших греческих товарищей, которые сегодня помогли нам организовать эту международную конференцию.
Практически все доклады сводятся к одной цели – это уничтожить НАТО как агрессивный военный капиталистический блок. Я кратко расскажу о сотрудничестве Молдовы с НАТО и наших усилиях, которые предпринимает наше движение, чтобы объяснить людям и противостоять этому империалистическому агрессору.
Активное сотрудничество с НАТО началось, когда к власти пришла псевдокоммунистическая партия. В 2006 году Парламентом были приняты закон и соответствующее Постановление Правительства «Индивидуальный план партнерства Молодва-НАТО».
В этом плане содержались положения, которые напрямую указывают нам, что действительно идет сотрудничество Молдова-НАТО: открытие информационного центра в Кишиневе (столица), обмен воздушной информацией, организация недель НАТО в Молдове, подготовка информационных стендов о деятельности НАТО и др.. В плане также содержалось: добиться вывода Россией вооружения 14-ой армии с территории Приднестровья. С нашей стороны были попытки провести митинг протеста, который не был санкционирован властями, поэтому мы стали собирать подписи под жалобой в Генеральную прокуратуру о возбуждении уголовного дела в отношении Парламента, Правительства и Президента по статье «Превышение власти и служебных полномочий»
(Примечание: по Конституции Молдовы «Молдова - нейтральное государство…»).
После того, как псевдокоммунистическая партия потеряла власть «славные традиции» сотрудничества продолжили другие буржуазные партии.
3мая этого года (2016) американский кавалерийский полк (солдаты и военная техника) въехал на территорию республики Молдова под предлогом празднования окончания второй мировой войны. И 8мая установили военную технику прямо на центральной площади пред зданием Правительства. С нашей стороны были предприняты попытки повернуть мероприятие в правильное русло /раз американские солдаты были союзниками во второй мировой войне/ им раздавались георгиевские ленточки некоторыми пророссийски настроенными людьми не из нашей организации, от нашей же организации мы ходили с прикрепленной на груди Красной ленточкой и красной футболкой Че Гевары, предлагая, говоря на английском языке: «Это Вам подарок от Че Гевары!», руководителю группы американских солдат прикрепить себе на грудь, именно, Красную ленточку!
Если георгиевские ленточки они брали, то Красную отказались брать.
Сегодня в Кишиневе (8июля) мы организуем митинг протеста возле Парламента против участия министра обороны Молдовы на саммите НАТО в Варшаве.
8мая у нас также были плакаты «Убийцы нам не партнеры!»…
Мы продолжаем нашу борьбу…

Доклад на антивоенной конференции:

Дорогие товарищи!
Я представляю марксистское движение «Народное Сопротивление» из Молдавии.
Кроме того, я считаю себя гражданином Союза Советских Социалистических Республик.
Кто не знает Советский Союз юридически существует. Фактически уголовники захватили
общенародную собственность. Это происходит в нарушение Конституции СССР, которую никто не отменял. В Конституции Молдавии нет никаких положений, которые бы говорили, что с принятием этой Конституции [Молдовы] «утрачивает силу Конституция СССР». Конституция СССР имеет статус международного договора. Это договор между народами - молдавским, украинским, грузинским и другими народами. И он обладает высшей юридической силой по сравнению с другими законами, которые были приняты самопровозглашенными республиками.
А теперь что касается нашей темы. Моя организация постоянно принимает участие в антивоенных акциях, которые мы проводим в республике. Мы проводим свои акции протеста возле американского посольства, поскольку считаем что это страна играет главную скрипку в оркестре НАТО! Я, конечно, поддерживаю всех товарищей, которые выступали до меня, но мы считаем, что НАТО – это инструмент капитализма. И пока существует капитализм будет существовать его военная организация, которая будет подавлять разные народы. Империалистам всех стран просто необходимы войны!
С помощью войн они избавляются от людских ресурсов, от производственных ресурсов , разрушают инфраструктуру; уничтожают конкурентов в производстве. Мы помним как в Югославии бомбили завод кухонного оборудования, который конкурировал с фирмой «BOSH». В налетах также участвовали и немецкие летчики. Это как частный пример. А таких примеров много. Поэтому нам необходимо бороться с капитализмом как явлением, бороться за другой строй, - за социализм. Это совершенно более высокая ступень развития человеческого общества! Мы- коммунисты и трудящиеся всех стран – должны разоблачать империалистическую политику наших правителей. И должны бороться каждый в своей стране со своим внутренним врагом, - это наши собственные Правительства! Не забывая, конечно, о солидарности между нами! Спасибо!


Contribution of CP of Sweden

Since the first of July, the so called non-aligned Sweden, has delved even further into the war alliance NATO. On the first of July, the Host Nation Support Agreement went into effect, which implies that NATO-headquarters, NATO-troops and extended military exercices can be held on Swedish soil irregardless if in peace, crisis or war. NATO strategy will be employed, which means that nuclear weapons cannot be excluded. Sweden may now also be used as territory for launching NATO-offensives on third countries. Counting in Finland, which ratified the host nation country agreement as well, NATO now has a 1 000 km long eastern border to Russia. As such the war alliance has fortified its northern flank in Europe.

It is the social democratic and green government, along with enthusiastic support from the right-wing opposition accompanied by lame protests of the Left party, that made the parliamentary ruling on a new, higher level of submission to the military alliance possible. Just a week after the agreement was passed, well known NATO-supporters in the leading right-wing newspaper expressed that the Host Nation Support Agreement would not be enough and that a full membership was needed!

The Communist Party of Sweden that has waged a struggle against NATO since 1949, started an intensified campaign against the Nost Nation Support Agreement and NATO-membership in 2014, with posters, flyers and an informational broschure. The responsiblity of imperialism and NATO for the wars ranging from Yugoslavia to Libya were in focus.

The Swedish general opinion in favour of non-alignment and against nuclear weapons has been positively stable for decades, but has shrunk somewhat as a result of a ferocious persecution of Russia since 2014. For that reason, extraparliamentarian forces started action groups against NATO about 1½ years ago that spread from the capital across the country. The most tangible result turned out to be the 42 000 protest signatures collected against the host nation support agreement. The number implies thousands of enlightening conversations in a political climate where the establishment tried to cover up its treason. The signature collection was rounded up by the greatest Swedish protest meeting against NATO, up to now. But the small number, 1 500 participants, shows that the resistance is weak still. On this demonstration SKP distributed leaflets with a clear analysis of the imperialist nature of NATO and EU. Furthermore, since 2014, the Swedish protests have been accompanied by numerous publications of new books against the NATO-agreement by ex-politicians, by ex-servicemen and by an own NATO-investigation. Cultural workers started to get involved, but no united unionist protests were present. The Swedish Trade Union Confederation (LO) is a puppet of the social democratic government. But let me tell you that a friend organization to the World Trade Federation was founded in Sweden in the beginning of July!

Currently, the Swedish No to NATO-movement discusses its tranformation into a national organization against Swedish NATO-membership, and for non-alignment. Our party will be cooperating with the peace- and no-to-war-movement, but will not limit itself to particular isolated questions, but fight NATO as a whole and as an instrument of the war policies of capitalism and imperialism.

After the on going NATO-conference here in Poland, our tasks as communists will grow. The bonds NATO wants to strengthen with the European union will not just increase defence expenditures on the expense of the living standards of the working class, but will also increase new international tensions as a result of rearmament, that lead to preconditions for a new cold war in Europe. The provocations of NATO know no bounds. In Sweden it is said, that NATO prepares the largest military maneuvers, until now, for October 2017, under the name AURORA. One hundred years after the October revolution.

Contribution of CP, Turkey

Dear Comrades,

Firstly I would like to speak of the current situation in the world, and then continue with Turkey’s position in this picture.

We preferred to define the dark period we have been experiencing for 26 years now, as “the imperialist restoration of the world after the counter-revolution in the Soviet Union”. At the beginning of this new period, the US had had a huge military power at its disposal while keeping the largest GDP share and enjoying its financial hegemony through the USD. Moreover, it was at the top of the imperialist pyramid, masterminding the imperialist restoration by leading other imperialist forces, notably Germany, France, Britain and Japan.

In brief, the restoration involved such items:

narrowing down the invested rights of the working class,
promoting obscurantism among peoples
dissolving the national barriers against the free circulation of international capital.
It was likely to be a sort of ultra-imperialism. And consequently we were very concerned due to two main reasons:

A socialist revolution would become very difficult to achieve in any corner of the world,
And Kaustky would be historically proved to be right.
However, the mechanism of uneven development has still been vigour.

During the last two decades, China as a capitalist country has reached a large GDP and financial power, and has obtained a large portion of the world market. Ten years after the counter-revolution, Russia reappeared as a regional force, which –in alliance with China- proved to be able to resist the US in military terms.

As a result, some other imperialist and capitalist states, e.g. Germany, India, became rather ambivalent in terms of their positions vis-à-vis alliances.

This schema can be useful to understand the strange position of Turkey.

The imperialist restoration which began in 1990 in Turkey has successfully reached its ends, particularly under the AKP rule, and Turkey has become integrated into the imperialist system with a new capital accumulation model.

In this model, national barriers against international investment to Turkey were to be lifted, and they did. On the other hand, Turkish monopolies began exporting capital within a range of 4-hours-flight to everywhere, particularly to Russia, Africa, Middle East and Balkans. The flights of Turkish Airlines were arranged according to rules of 4-hours distance. The interest of the monopolies in exporting capital was supported by the Turkish state, which also harmonized this with Islamic ideology. This new orientation was sometimes called as “neo-Ottomanism”.

Then, Turkish bourgeoisie began feeling a strong pressure as a result of the conflict among strong capitalist countries, since Turkey was an ally of the US for a long time, and was not strong enough to change this orientation in presence of the high intervention capacity of the US.

On the other hand, Russia, Iran, and some countries such as Libya (before the operation of NATO) have been large market and investment opportunities including energy resources such as natural gas, for the Turkish bourgeoisie.

This is the reason why Erdogan has been teetering for a long time just like a tumbler. These oscillations included a wide range of contradictory acts such as;

signing energy projects with Russia, including building strategic pipelines and nuclear power reactors,
shooting down a Russian warplane,
inviting the NATO to the Black Sea in order to prevent it “becoming a Russian lake”,
apologizing from Putin for the downing of the warplane.
And now in the NATO summit in Warsaw, the US is going to present a list of duties to Turkey, participating with the NATO forces for surrounding Russia by opening the Black Sea for NATO warships and supporting NATO operations in Syria.

This indeed is a worrisome situation for Erdogan and Turkish Bourgeoisie. In truth, the neo-Ottomanism is de facto collapsed.

And we believe that this hopeless situation opens new opportunities to the working class for a revolution.


Long live internationalism!

Erhan Nalcaci, member of CC, responsible for International Relations

CC of KP, Turkey