Communist Party of Macedonia

  • 2/4/19 6:51 PM
  • Διεθνές Τμήμα

The experience of the so-called self-management in Yugoslavia

First of all, on behalf of the Communist Party of Macedonia we express our deep gratitude to the host of this meeting, the Communist Party of Turkey for everything, and greetings to the members and supporters of CPT.

The self-management like a phenomenon - a processis not started on the territory of Yugoslavia, more precisely, the same process began with the very appearance of the idea of humanism, as an aspiration for man for freedom in creating goods through technical overcoming of nature to the ultimate goal of a better and more humane life. The first wishes and challenges of the worker to get rid of the wage labor appear in the 19th century, and the same is confirmed by the father of Anarchism, Proudhon through his syntagma (phrase):The self-management represents equality with independence, the same commitment and practical application occurs when the first Paris Commune was established in 1871, and in witch survival of almost three months, the workers took power in their hands managing the social, political and economic life of the community, the city of Paris, which at that time numbered 2 million inhabitants.With more similarities in management reflects management in Russia after the October Revolution under the Soviets, to the similarity is reflected at the end of the 30th year of the 20th century in Spain as a product of theSpanish civil war, where and here, the workers introduced the so-called. management of the economy of Spain.Unfortunately, the heat of the bloody devastation of the Spanish Republic was from the fear that such worker management of the country and the economy is detrimental to the Spanish state.

Yugoslav self-rule was born during the National Liberation War in 1941 year, when on the free territory of fascists are formed the National Liberation boards as a self-governing democratic form of new popular government.In the autumn of 1941, when whole Europe was under the boot of fascism, on a free territory in Yugoslavia in an antimony smelter is formed a"Workers Control Board" through which the first step is made towards self - management as one of the most important benefits of the Socialist Revolution of Yugoslavia. Through the national committees, the workers organized the work themselves in the factories - they manage and with that begins creation of conditions for the further realization of the ultimate goal, the Socialist-self-governing political-economic system of Yugoslavia.The National Workers' Boards carried important decisions from the part of the production, took care of the living of the working families, took adequate measures to help the Liberation Front and to organize factory guard.It should be noted that even at that time, the labor control boards adopted rules (a rulebook)for their work and acting.Through a week-long gathering of workers, informations were obtained from the workload of work and life of workers, and in a broader sense this shows how in advance everythingwas planned and implemented in a spirit of equality and humanism.Despite the small number of educated residents at the time, this successful model was an example of enthusiasm in all-day operation of workers and mutual competition which more positive example will be in the factoryand which will produce more. Despite the small number of educated residents at the time, this model was successful example of enthusiasm in all-day operation of workers and mutual competition which will produce more and which positive example will be in the factory.Many of these first self-governors gave their lives for freedom, but they will be remembered as the first pioneers in the creation of self-governing Yugoslavia.

As victors over fascism, Yugoslavia and its political deputies, after the liberation of the whole country, took to work to organize the state in every respect for a better and humane life for its inhabitants.Already in 1946, on January 31, the first constitution of the FNRJ was adopted, where several decisions were made, but the most important ones were of course: Setting the foundation of statehood and the political system that consisted of:"The establishment of the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia with equal peoples and nationals living in that country, the law on nationalization and the return of the country to the poor peasants, to exempt the workers from the hired relationship they had in private factories so far, in which they took the management in their hands, and so with this Constitution and the laws was set the foundation of the new Socialist Yugoslavia management.However, it must be noted that with this constitution, post-military, the leadership role is still in the state itself, since the economy was not yet developed (the working class was not strong and organized), but after the first months of the adoption of this the constitution it has already been seen that the devastated country of the whirlwind of anti-fascist struggle was renewed - recovering through voluntary drill actions, and through agrarian reform.Through the first five-year plan, the country was supposed to overcome economic and technical backwardness, raise defense power, raise industrialization and construction of factories, mines, settlements, power plants, in a word, to raise the economic power of all inhabitants and in total the whole country that at that moment was a large construction site.Тhe development in the management in that period from 1948 to 1950, unfortunately stagnates, receives a negative development trend from an aspect known as a collision known in history as the Collision between the Infobiroto and the CP of Yugoslavia,and the reasons for the same conflict are: the unsuitable path for the development of the country by CPJ with the then-led states of the socialist communist bloc, as well as the fact that the same conflict has contributed to the closure of the borders between the states led by the communist parties. As a product of all this came to a dismissal of anti-fascist role of Yugoslavia and its struggle against fascism, besides the economic devastation from the whirlwind of that war, the country lost 1 750 000 inhabitants of its population.With all of this, the inhabitants of Yugoslavia, through their sacrifices and efforts led by the CPY, to mitigate the economic situation, introduced a national loan that won it a competitive character, and it would bring more goods among the peasants of the countryside and workers in the factories.

The Fifth Congress of the CPY 21.07.1948. determined the main directions of the social development of the Yugoslav Socialist State, from which came the famous thesis: "Local self-government should be the motor force in the development of all the creative forces of the Yugoslav people". There were a number of amendments to the laws aimed at achieving the goal of self-government ownership.The Assembly of Yugoslavia in May 1949 adopted a law on national committees that would increase the aspiration for self-management. Already, through these changes has been achieved the ideological goal that was intended to foster the mutual management of enterprises between the management staff on the one hand and the workers on the other,  thus achieving mutual agreement on all important issues of economic, political and social nature, and the same to analyze and make appropriate solutions. The development of the Yugoslav socialist road was difficult and bumpy, but brilliant ideas emerged that helped develop self-management, as an idea through the introduction of management of enterprises by workers' councils, through which the management in the hands of the workers will be transferred, and through which the phenomenon, with a brilliant-quality solution, so far nowhereachieved in the world, a separation of state management of the economy will be achieved.Yugoslav socialism from the administrative, through its development, turns into a so-called "Free Socialism". This free self-governing socialism was an alternative to state socialism in Yugoslavia until 1950. But here we must be objective and proud of our Anti-Fascist fighters against fascism in view of indisputable fact that the law on works councils adopted in June 1950 was a result of the war in 1945, when in September on the free territory is formed the first National Liberation Committee. The same day, on September 5, 1945, the first board of workers' control was formed, with the continuation of the development road in December 1949. Before the announcement of the law on workers 'councils and the initiative on the side of the CP in the Republic of Croatia, the first workers' council was formed, whereby the Marx and Lenin phrase was affirmed: "the factories of workers", through which, with the management, by the workers with the industry will begin the path towards the withdrawal of the leadership role of the State itself.After the concrete success of the first phase with the leadership role of the workers' councils in the collectives, it was transferred to the fulfillment of the second Marx analytical theory, which is: Mutual management of the workers with the local self-government, i.e. known under the term Commune.With this theory, the Commune (the Municipality) is conceived as a community of work and living of the people who produce, create material goods that satisfy their needs and interests.The mutual relations and management in the Commune contribute to meeting the needs of individuals within it and the community itself. In the commune people are directed towards each other.In the constitution of the SFRY, the municipality is a self-governing basic social and political community, based on power and self-management of the working class,and all working people create and provide conditions for their lives and work with immediate interest for the social, cultural and communal development of the municipality. Through the adoption of new and enrichment of constitutional laws and federal decisions as the Producer Council, gathering votersand the Referendum, the qualitative work / self-management of the working class and ownership in the society has been achieved.

For all of these advanced ideas in individual circles in the ranks of the CPY, there was a hesitation and misunderstanding; in fact, individuals had a fear that self-management would die out the union movement, even as individuals thought that the power of the CP of Yugoslavia would be lost. But all these misconceptions and perceptions were removed during the 6th Congress of the CPY, where very significant decisions were made, among which: The role of the Communists of the CPY should be verified as the vanguard of the working self-governing people of Yugoslavia, each individual communist should be in the forefront of the factories, in the forefront of voluntary actions,in the local habitats, as an example of behavior and work. Apart from this, an important feature of this Congress was the condemnation of the world bloc division, condemnation to the aggressive policy towards the colonial countries, and the fact that the very term Colonialism was condemned by all delegates at the Congress.

One important positive indicator of the 10 years of socialist self-government in Yugoslavia was the fact that 350,000 self-governing workers were passed through workers' councils and boards and were the carriers of the work of these organs.Through this participation, self-managers were upgraded, gained new knowledge and experience for the further course of self-management, and they were transferred in phases and non-economic activities such as: education, culture, science, health, art, social institutions, sports collectives, in order to adapt their management to the point of self-management in the factory collectives where the material social goods were created. Immediately with these efforts in the Assembly of Yugoslavia, a council of producers was formed, through whichfor the first time in the Socialist Society in Europe and the world,our manufacturers, who create material goods, will have full participation in the distribution of those created goods and will decide together with other social political representatives. Through this and this thoughtful self-management, a third Marx theory emerged that: "the working collective where the worker works, and the commune where he lives, through the community, represent a social functional unit".Through all these mechanisms and making the right decisions, it was considered that the role of the state influence on any decision-making by her, would be reduced.

Through the first constitution of the FPRY when the founding of the Socialist Yugoslavia was laid, through the nationalization, through the first workers' council, the election of the National Assembly in 1950. through the 6th Congress of the CPY in 1952,the first Congress of Workers' Councils in 1957, through the new constitution of 1963, through the 2 congress of the self-rulers of Yugoslavia in Sarajevo in 1971, until the new constitution of 1974, and the 10 congress of the SKY, the structure, ie the roof of the self-managed system of Socialist Yugoslavia, was circled. Knowing the popular saying that a man dressed in tight clothing and wearing tight shoes is not completely free, the same, similar or equally felt in society controlled by the state. That is why the working Yugoslav man, step by step, through decrees, constitutional changes and laws, carried his life in a more humane and dignified working life. Through these benefits was formed - built the Yugoslav Socialism, fit for man-the worker. On the big door through all the delegates of the 10th Congress of the SKY, the unity of the fraternal peoples of Yugoslavia was confirmed, with a special emphasis on self-management as a benefit on which the existence of our society was based. At the same time, the convening of the delegate system was welcomed, through which, the decisions of the "Working People and Commune" base, were placed and participated in solving the social issues.

This component of the self-governing delegate system represents the most important act of the constitution of SFRY in 1974, which it is totally different worldwide. The most important decision of the associated labor in self-governing socialism is: Workers participate and make all decisions in the social system that arise from their work.

Article 11 of the Constitution of Yugoslavia reads: the work of the laborer and the result generated from that work, determines the material position of a person on the basis of equal rights and obligations i.e. responsibilities.No one, directly or indirectly, can gain material benefit through the exploitation of another's labor. In 1976, the Law on Associated Labor was adopted, which explains the free exchange of labor: "Material production is closely related to the immaterial because they are closely related to each other and generate new values mutually".In the same law, for joint labor, in the working organization , the Law on the association of at least two BOAL (Basic Organization of Associated Labor) was adopted.Through this and this law, the legal framework for functioning of the self-governing system is completed.


Long live the Communist unity in Europe and the World